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What is beta-caryophyllene (BCP)?

The cannabis plant is anything but simple. With some strains thought to contain more than 400 individual compounds in all, these are then split up into various classifications. 

There are cannabinoids, which cover cannabidiol (CBD), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and other compounds that are essentially unique to marijuana, such as cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabinol (CBN). There are also flavonoids, which are present in various fruits and vegetables and have antoxidant effects. And then there are terpenes, of which beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is one: these are beneficial compounds found in all kinds of plants, including hemp and mariuana. 

BCP is not just a regular terpene, but perhaps the most powerful of all. Non-intoxicating and compared to CBD by many, BCP stands above other terpenes such as beta-pinene, limonene, humulene and myrcene. BCP possesses anti-inflammatory properties, and may also improve mental wellbeing, boasting anti-anxiety and antidepressant effects. In addition to cannabis and hemp, the terpene pops up in black pepper, basil, copaiba, oregano, lavender, clove, rosemary and more. It features often in essential oils and bath oils, as a wonderful, natural health booster.  

This post will discuss: 

  • The physical health benefits of BCP
  • The mental health benefits of BCP  
  • How BCP complements CBD 
  • Cannabis strains with a high BCP content 
  • Why natural cannabis and hemp extracts are preferable to synthetics

If you have only ever paid attention to the cannabinoid content in strains, this article will open your eyes to the value of terpenes, too! 

Understanding how CBD interacts with BCP 

In the vast majority of hemp and marijuana strains, there will be some interaction between CBD and BCP. Hemp contains large quantities of CBD, whereas cannabis tends to have lower levels of CBD, and increased amounts of THC. Whatever the strain, if it has a spicy scent to it, the chances are it contains a healthy concentration of BCP. 

You can find BCP online and offline, legally. Hemp-based, full-spectrum CBD extracts also contain rich amounts of BCP. These naturally contain terpenes, unlike CBD-isolate products. Some CBD manufacturers use isolate extracts and add terpene essential oils in afterwards. Brands will sometimes take this opportunity to add in BCP, as an elevation terpene to enhance a product’s therapeutic value. 

Some say that BCP essentially mimics the effects of CBD – but this is an oversimplification. It’s true that both compounds have influence over the CB2 receptors in the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which manage inflammation. However, BCP’s impact has more in common with THC’s than CBD’s. 

BCP reduces inflammation by binding to CB2 receptors as an agonist. This has a direct anti-inflammatory (or immunomodulatory) effect. But CBD is a CB2 receptor antagonist – its therapeutic effect on these receptors comes from regulating endocannabinoid levels. These naturally-produced compounds are able to bind with CB2 receptors to modulate inflammation. The differences of CBD and BCP on CB2 receptors all comes down to the chemical structure of each molecule. 

What is BCP good for? 

We’ve talked about how BCP is an effective anti-inflammatory alternative. And we’ll delve deeper into the conditions BCP-infused CBD products are good for in this section. But let’s also turn our attention to the potential analgesic, anxiolytic and antidepressant benefits of the terpene. 

BCP for anxiety 

In 2014, the scientific journal Physiology and Behavior published a paper showing how BCP could be used to alleviate anxiety and depression in mice, using the CB2 receptor mechanism. This is somewhat unexpected, since the CB2 receptor is associated with inflammation, and not anxiety, which is largely considered to be regulated by GABA neurotransmitters and the serotonin system. 

However, this raises the possibility that inflammation to certain areas of the brain contributes to increased anxiogenic behavior. Treating anxiety, therefore, may require healing the brain physically, as well as chemically. It’s feasible that BCP and CBD have a role to play here.  

BCP for depression 

The beneficial effect of this compound for depression is a curious one, particularly as it is exerted at the CB2 receptor. A growing train of thought among neurological researchers is that depression may be exacerbated by inflammation. Indeed, research on CBD has repeatedly demonstrated how, as an anti-inflammatory, CBD works to ease depressive symptoms for as long as a week, from a single dose. Since we know that BCP regulates inflammation, it’s not a huge stretch to say this is how it produces an antidepressant effect. That said, further tests, involving neuroimaging, will help us to learn more

Another study, featured in the Journal of Medicinal Food in 2019, showed how BCP could reduce “depressive-like behavior” in diabetic mice. Rodents are popular for testing experimental drugs because our own brains have much in common with them. Some of the ground-breaking CBD studies on depression and mental disorders have been conducted on rodents. 

BCP for inflammation and the digestive tract

BCP is sometimes referred to as a dietary cannabinoid. As a CB2 receptor agonist, we have already discussed how the terpene can be used to reduce inflammation. This mechanism may also be key to improving functioning in the digestive tract. Research has shown how CB2 receptor agonists, such as endocannabinoids, THC and BCP are effective at preventing experimental colitis, by easing inflammation. Advocates of the gut-brain connection via the vagus nerve may also argue that a healthy digestive tract is vital to improving mental health. If so, CBD and BCP products may be useful here. 

BCP for pain

THC is a powerful analgesic and CBD also boasts some intriguing painkilling effects. The value of non-intoxicating, CBD-rich hemp products may be boosted further in strains that have plenty of BCP. Studies show that the terpene is effective at relieving pain, once again by acting at the CB2 receptor. Given the double up of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, this may make a BCP and CBD combination great at tackling both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

BCP for Parkinson’s disease 

A 2014 study in the Swiss journal Pharmaceuticals brought to light the compound’s intriguing neuroprotective effects. The study focussed on how the terpene may have medicinal value for Parkinson’s disease, a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder. The study showed how taking BCP helped to limit the loss of dopaminergic neurons which typifies the condition. BCP also reduced the spread of inflammatory cytokines in the brain. 

The investigation was conducted on a murine (rodent) model, and appears to be the first of its kind. However, it provides food for thought for those studying Parkinson’s, with BCP being a non-intoxicating terpenes that could be combined with other safe, natural compounds like CBD as a neuroprotective medicine. 

We need more research

We should note these are preliminary findings. There is little – if any – clinical evidence to support BCP. However, while researchers may only have been studying BCP in small trials, the effects are intriguing. Furthermore, since BCP’s effects are administered in the ECS, this is clearly an area of science that has not been explored extensively. ECS science has only progressed since the 1990s, which was when the system was discovered. Researchers have made huge disoveries about CBD and THC in the past 30 years. With more funding, the same could perhaps happen with BCP. We simply need more studies to know for sure. If anything is true, it’s that there is still much we don’t know about the human body.

Strains with high levels of BCP

CBD users who want to benefit from BCP should stick with CBD-rich hemp flower, or a product that has been explicitly made with a full-spectrum extract, or a CBD-isolate and terpene mix. In this section, we will focus on strains of marijuana that have rich levels of BCP.

OG Kush

This is a famous strain of weed that comes from Florida, with its roots in the age-old Hindu Kush plants from Asia. OG Kush has increasingly been used to make several other strains which carry the OG name, such as Tahoe OG. An indica-dominant strain with a woody and earthy taste, OG Kush is great for leaving you feeling happy and relaxed. Commonly used to remedy stress, depression and pain, it’s likely that the increased quantities of BCP provide a nice beneficial effect here.  

White Widow

A top-selling hybrid strain that originated in the Netherlands, White Widow is a strain comprised from an Indian indica and a Brazilian sativa. The strain has been used to help cultivate several other modern-day favorites, including White Russian and Blue Widow. But many still prefer the classic hybrid that is White Widow. 

This strain is woody and flowery in its taste, and just as with OG Kush, promotes a feeling of happiness and relaxation. Ease pain, manage depression, boost mood and alleviate stress with White Widow. It’s also great for busting fatigue. If this BCP-rich strain has any drawbacks, it’s that it may cause dry mouth and dry eyes.

Super Silver Haze 

This is an award-winning sativa strain that managed a three-peat at the High Times Cannabis Cup from 1997 to 1999. Super Silver Haze’s genetics help to pump up your energy levels, leaving you feeling physically and mentally refreshed. Stressed out or demotivated? A few tokes on Super Silver Haze will soon have you feeling great again.

Super Silver Haze has an eclectic mixture of earthy, sweet and citrusy flavors. With BCP a utility terpene in this strain, we can surely attribute the compound to providing those earthy tastes. 

Death Star

This strain has a slightly scary name but it’s nothing to be afraid of! This indica-dominant strain is made with a delightful combo of Sour Diesel and Sensi Star. This is a really potent strain. While many users report the effects as slow to hit, once they do, you sure know about it. Death Star has a diesel-like flavor from, of course, the Sour Diesel, but it’s the earthiness that overpowers all, thanks to the BCP packing a serious punch.

Try Death Star if you want deep relaxation after a long day at work, if you want a great night’s sleep, or to put yourself in a good mood when chilling either alone or with friends. 

BCP shows why natural cannabis extracts beat synthetics 

There is a raging debate in the cannabis industry about whether natural or synthetic extracts work best. Synthetic advocates suggest that we know which cannabinoids are needed, and that we can simply use these to make medicinal cannabinoid oils. But this ignores the potential benefits of other compounds in cannabis, that haven’t been studied much, but do appear to have benefits. Just a glance at the smattering of studies on BCP shows it has potential.

You may not see BCP at pharmacies as a medicine, but it’s a fantastic supplement. If you want to enjoy its benefits, get hold of one of the aforementioned marijuana strains, or pick up a full-spectrum CBD product today. 

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CBD vs Prescription Drugs – what does the future hold?

One of the big questions that will be answered over the next few decades is just how many illnesses and conditions cannabidiol (CBD) treatment will replace prescription drugs for. CBD appears to have lots of medical potential for mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety, and physical conditions including chronic pain. CBD products are currently sold as dietary supplements, enhancing general wellness by boosting the endocannabinoid system (ECS).

Our understanding of CBD’s true therapeutic value, in consideration of its beneficial properties and side effects, compared to existing prescription drugs is set to grow. Demand for high-quality clinical trials is at an all-time high, as CBD consumption across America and around the world goes through the roof. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is slowing starting to get its act together. But as of July 2019, the only FDA-approved CBD drug is Epidiolex, an epilepsy treatment made by GW Pharmaceuticals of the United Kingdom.

This post will focus on a few areas where CBD has demonstrated promise as a medicine. We’ll look particularly at fields where current drugs are not up to standard. We’ll look at how CBD could be used, discussing the most suitable forms of administration, and the most effective doses.

Our analysis will look at:

  • CBD’s antipsychotic potential for psychosis and schizophrenia
  • Why CBD may be better than opioids for pain
  • The promise of CBD for anxiety and depression 
  • Cannabis and CBD’s medicinal value for migraines 
  • Why CBD may be a preferable anti-inflammatory drug to NSAIDs

Why it’s vital to seek professional advice 

We get it. You are super excited to try CBD, a derivative of the cannabis plant that doesn’t produce a high. Perhaps your friends have tried it and are having great results. Maybe you’ve been reading up on the medical benefits the cannabinoid has to offer. Are you ready to get in on the growing trend, and try out some of these innovative products yourself?

But if you are planning to start taking CBD alongside – or instead of – you should definitely seek a doctor’s advice first. The drug interactions between CBD and other substances have not been thoroughly studied, and certainly don’t get the attention they should. But there is some evidence that CBD can slow activity in the cytochrome P450 system. This means that CBD interferes with the metabolization of some drugs, affecting how much of the dose becomes active. Typically, this leads to a dosage increase of the prescription drug, even if you are taking the same amount as usual. 

CBD doesn’t affect all drugs in this way, hence why it is perfectly fine to combine CBD hemp oil and other products with your current medication. But you’ll only know for sure if you make contact with your doctor, who can give you the full information related to your situation. And most importantly, they’ll put your mind at rest.

What drugs interact with CBD oil? 

So far, we know that the following drugs interact with CBD oil: steroids, immune modulators, HIV antivirals, calcium channel blockers, prokinetics, antihistamines and benzodiazepines. 

CBD for psychosis and schizophrenia 

Scientific research has found it harder to penetrate the brain and its workings than other organs in the body. Indeed, the human brain is commonly accepted as the most complicated object in the known universe. This has made deciphering the causes and finding safe and suitable treatments for illnesses such as psychosis and schizophrenia very, very difficult. Moreover, use and abuse of recreational marijuana high in THC has been linked to these disorders.

But with antipsychotics failing to help patients enough, new drugs are necessary. CBD is intriguing because of its moderating role on THC. With both indica and sativa strains of marijuana, the richer the CBD content, the less of an overall high the user receives. It is through this CB1 receptor mechanism that CBD has antipsychotic promise. 

Should CBD treatment mark a new era for psychosis and schizophrenia medicine, it would almost certainly be CBD-infused products only. Any amount of THC would probably have a negative effect due to its psychoactive nature.

CBD for chronic pain 

The United States is just one of many countries around the world where healthcare systems are experiencing serious problems in treating chronic pain. Prescription opioid painkillers have demonstrated analgesic effectiveness, but are held back by side effects and overdose risks. Patients who are put on chronic pain treatment plans often end up having to manage an opioid addiction as well. More than 10,000 Americans die annually from prescription overdoses. It is paramount that researchers find a new painkiller medication. And ideally, one that is equally effective, and crucially much safer.

Cannabis is a natural area of research. Medical marijuana has been used for pain relief by patients in legal states for many years, and cannabis has a painkiller history that dates back millennia. However, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has always been considered the key ingredient to the pain relief provided by marijuana. Its psychoactive properties have rankled with medical professionals, politicians and patients. Anti-marijuana arguments center around how the intoxicating effects can have damaging short and long-term impacts on mental health. The debate, in the context of opioids, on whether the upsides of THC outweigh the downsides for pain relief will continue. But could CBD, a distinctly non-intoxicating cannabinoid, have serious potential as a natural, low-risk painkiller? And if so, could it quickly become adopted widely in the US?

CBD research gives cause for optimism


The evidence is uncertain, but highlights the real need for extensive research. More people are using CBD for pain than anything else, according to a recent survey. However, this does not equate to clinical evidence, and could perhaps be the result of a significant placebo effect. The small studies that have been conducted on CBD and pain are inconclusive, but show some promise, in particular for neuropathic pain. 

Full-spectrum CBD products would likely be best for pain management, as these produce the ‘entourage effect’. This is an interaction between cannabinoids that makes them more therapeutic than if consumed as a single substance. The wide array of CBD products – such as hemp flower, creams, vape juices and edibles – is also exciting. This suggests there are many ways that CBD could be beneficial. Patients may get better results from using two products together (e.g. a cream with a vape juice). 

CBD for anxiety and depression

As explained in the ‘psychosis and schizophrenia’ section, any cannabis-based treatment for mental illness tends to divide opinion. But non-intoxicating CBD must be explored for anxiety and depression. For one, because patients are already taking CBD capsules and other products. But also since existing drugs are showing diminishing returns. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) the primary class of drug for both since the late 1980s, work at a snail’s pace, and some patients receive no benefits. This indicates that simply tweaking serotonin levels doesn’t solve the problem, and perhaps that these illnesses – and depression especially – are even more complex than they appear.

CBD’s popularity for anxiety and depression is backed up by a few studies which show it can have a therapeutic effect. Granted, this is not the same as hard, clinical evidence. But the bar is set low for new drugs. Any CBD treatment that can be shown to work would perhaps be preferable to SSRIs, since there is much less of a problem with side effects. SSRIs are notorious for making users tired, dizzy, nervous and even nauseous. In contrast, sleepiness only seems to occur with CBD after taking a large dose. 

Which CBD products are most effective

Finding the right type of CBD and medication plans that work for patients is the next step. With anxiety, it seems that the more rapidly a treatment kicks in, the better. This brings tincture oils to the fore, and also vape juices and CBD joints for those who are less concerned about the health risks.

For depression, any product will likely have a potent antidepressant effect. Research suggests that one dose can remain effective for several days. It’s possible that full-spectrum CBD is a more valuable antidepressant than CBD-isolate product. Other cannabinoids have shown potential as promoting neurogenesis and reducing inflammation. Tackling neuroinflammation may be critical to dealing with depression.

CBD for migraines 

Migraines are very painful headaches, and make some patients more vulnerable to sound and light. These are the ‘aura’ symptoms that people talk about regarding migraines. Researchers have developed drugs that manage the condition, without nailing down the root cause. However, new studies related to marijuana and hemp propose that the very ECS that cannabis works in could be to blame.

The idea that a dysregulated ECS is responsible for migraines comes under a theory called ‘Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency’. Proponents argue that those who suffer from migraines and certain other illnesses may not be generating the required levels of endocannabinoids to bind with and regulate cannabinoid receptors. Cannabinoids from hemp and cannabis act as substitutes to endocannabinoids. It’s perfectly feasible that the unique compounds from these plants are essential for treating migraines.

Small investigations have highlighted how cannabis is comparable with current migraine drugs in terms of benefits, and that it outperforms them in regard to side effects. The question is whether a pure non-intoxicating CBD solution is therapeutic in its own right, or if the added influence of THC is vital, or merely helpful.

CBD for inflammatory illnesses 

A future crisis with anti-inflammatory drugs may be looming. Aspirin, ibuprofen and other over-the-counter and prescription non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have dominated the market for dealing with arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other inflammatory illnesses for decades. But recent reports have questioned just how effective and safe they are, in older patients especially. 

CBD research – and studies on other cannabinoids – have found that anti-inflammatory effects can be produced via the ECS. Cannabinoids nurture the immune system to find balance between pro and anti-inflammatory signals. THC does this by binding to CB2 receptors; CBD is more nuanced in boosting endocannabinoid presence so this role can be fulfilled naturally.

This link between the ECS and the immune system is a recent discovery. Cannabinoid science has historically been stunted due to prohibition. Many of the most important finds regarding CBD have come since that discovery in the early 1990s. With that in mind, it isn’t such a shock that CBD may treat conditions much more efficiently than drugs which have been used for many years do.

Final thoughts  

Various schools of medicine are going to need to pay much closer attention to cannabis and hemp plants going forward. The potential for CBD as a medicine looks enormous. Exactly what mental and physical conditions CBD is great for is, however, not crystal clear. But in 10 to 20 years’ time, it’s quite likely doctors will be prescribing cannabis and non-intoxicating CBD solutions for common ailments, that affect millions of us. 

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Why CBD is good for the brain

Cannabis has a profound effect on the brain, and this fact was first realized by humans thousands of years ago. More recently, marijuana has been considered to be a net negative for mental health and the brain. But this was before the properties of cannabidiol (CBD) were extensively explored. The cannabinoid, which can be legally derived from hemp, has become a medicinal wonder over the past few years, and it is showing impressive, wide-ranging potential for brain health.

This article will help to improve your understanding of CBD’s neurological effects. We will cover:


  • How CBD differs from regular cannabis
  • How CBD works in the brain
  • The benefits of CBD for various mental conditions
  • Which CBD products may be most helpful for the brain
  • Why CBD is of therapeutic value to chronic cannabis users

We have tons of fascinating information to share with you. But please keep in mind the following is just informational content, and not a substitute for medical advice.

How does CBD work in the brain?

CBD works in the brain by acting on cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) that comprise part of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). CBD optimizes the ECS, which promotes homeostasis in the body. A healthy ECS is thought to reduce the likelihood of mood disorders and cognitive problems, and more serious mental illnesses like psychosis and schizophrenia.

CB1 receptors are more dominant than CB2 receptors in the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord. These are implicated in regulating mood, appetite, memory and pain sensitivity. The receptor has become a target for various conditions, including depression and anxiety. But a dearth of clinical trials has so far stopped us from knowing the true effectiveness of CBD.

CBD is non-psychoactive

One huge benefit of CBD in comparison to typical cannabis products is its non-psychoactive status. The intoxicating effects of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), generally the most abundant cannabinoid in marijuana, is thought to aggravate certain mental illnesses.

The psychoactive effects mean that cannabis has been outlawed in many countries, including the United States, for several decades. Marijuana research has been hard to come by for this reason. But as CBD is safe with few side effects, and can be taken in rich quantities from hemp, which is now legal, the compound is being studied and used by the American public at a greater rate than ever before. It’s even popular for several mental disorders that cannabis was thought to be problematic for, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

CBD effects on brain health

CBD has numerous nuanced effects on brain health. Due to the complexity of neuroscience, and the limited cannabinoid research conducted, much of the evidence on CBD’s therapeutic neurological benefits is preliminary. However, some fascinating studies offer an insight into how CBD could be used for the brain. And coupled with our knowledge on what people are taking CBD for, we can join a few dots to get a good idea of what the compound has medical benefits for.

CBD for anxiety

An overactive brain is responsible for the mental disorder anxiety. Treatments for the condition have historically looked at involving the 5-HT1A receptors in the serotonin system, of which CBD is an agonist. CBD also regulates brain levels of gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that inhibits electrical impulses in the brain. This is a key effect, as a balance between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters like glutamate is vital. Otherwise, the brain becomes excessively active, which increases the risks of epileptic seizures as well as anxiety.

Most people using CBD for anxiety prefer the efficient qualities of CBD vape pens, or tincture oils if they want to stay healthy. CBD is likely much better than regular medication for generalized and social anxiety, as the benefits are noticeable in minutes, not weeks.

CBD for brain inflammation

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans on the brain are showing the differences in brain structures between healthy people, and those with depression and other mental disorders. MRIs are transforming views on mental illness. Disorders aren’t just due to chemical issues, but physical problems, too. Major depressive disorder may explain brain inflammation. Neuro-inflammation causes structural changes to the brain.

Studies have linked depression to damage in various regions of the brain, notably the hippocampus, where motivation and memory is controlled, and the prefrontal cortex. Research also shows that CBD, cannabichromene (CBC) and other non-psychoactive cannabinoids have neuroprotective qualities, which not only reduce symptoms but have a healing effect on the brain.

The anti-inflammatory influence of CBD on the brain suggests that it may provide more potent and enduring benefits for depressed patients than current drugs. While animal studies are merely a precursor for human, clinical trials, such research has highlighted how an antidepressant effect lasting several days can be obtained from just one dose of CBD.

CBD for neuropathic pain

Neuropathic pain occurs when nerves involved with the transferral of information between the brain and spinal cord and other regions of the body. Symptoms of conditions like multiple sclerosis (MS) tend to be intensely painful, and hard to manage.  Neuropathic pain severely affects quality of life, due to loss of mobility.

A study in Anesthesia and Analgesia in 2017 showed why CBD may be helpful for chronic nerve pain. Treatment may also help to combat fatigue and enhance sleep quality by easing pain at night. To relieve this type of pain in the daytime, vaping or smoking hemp-derived CBD products may be best. At night, a CBD edible product like CBD gummies will last for longer. Boost CBD’s sedative effects with a product that contains indica terpenes. 

CBD oil for brain injuries

It may be possible to alleviate the damage caused by strokes, traumatic brain injuries and concussions by using CBD, and hemp-derived CBD products. A rat model found that CBD treatment could reduce brain damage from an artificial ischemia stroke. MRI scans showcased the benefits of CBD administration. Researchers found that CBD reduced neuronal loss and helped with long-term recovery, by regulating various factors, including brain inflammation and apoptosis.

A 2018 study looked at the potential of medicinal cannabis to treat concussion syndrome and concussion-related pain in humans. They suggested that medical cannabis could be helpful, and that treatments with 1:1 THC to CBD were better than 20:1 THC to CBD. Therefore, CBD looks to have a medicinal effect that is worth studying in more depth.

CBD for brain fog

Most of us experience a mental slump at some point in life. This brain fog can be due to symptoms of other illnesses, like fibromyalgia. But there are several factors that could lead to a decline in cognition, from brain inflammation to poor gut health. The good news is that the ECS regulates cognitive function and memory, and could help to ease brain fog symptoms, and bring back mental clarity.

Any CBD product where the cannabinoids are taken into the brain can help with mental fogginess. Those wanting a rapid boost and perhaps a creative spark may want to try products with sativa terpenes. Sativas enhance mood, and have pleasant cerebral effects.

CBD for Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease

Could CBD really help with Alzheimer’s disease? There is certainly optimism among the CBD community, because of the neurogenesis that CBD provides to the hippocampus. Memory is regulated here, and hippocampal atrophy, or shrinkage, has been linked to Alzheimer’s. A Brazilian patient is now being prescribed CBD for Alzheimer’s after getting special permission, and it will be intriguing to see the long-term effects of treatment for this form of dementia. 

Parkinson’s groups all over the world are expressing their support for the relaxation of laws surrounding medical cannabis. CBD’s potential for this neurodegenerative illness is unclear. But studies have shown that CBD can reduce psychotic symptoms, and relieve depression and anxiety. It may also help with tremors and sleeping problems. CBD is an inverse agonist of CPR6 receptors in the basal ganglia, a potential target for future Parkinson’s medication.

Huntington’s is a brain disorder that adversely affects cognition, emotional processing and motor control, and the illness is inherited.Huntington’s develops in the 30s and 40s, and damages nerve cells in the brain. CBD has actually been researched for Huntington’s for many decades. In 1991, a controlled clinical trial showed that CBD had no effect on the disease. Other studies have found that cannabinoids are neuroprotective and may help. We require more research to be confident of the effects.

Can CBD reverse brain damage?

CBD for brain disorders is an exciting prospect. Initial research for many brain issues looks promising. However, it is also clear that while CBD is good for some conditions, it may not help with all. It’s tempting to talk about CBD as if it were some kind of panacea. But this only discredits the treatment for what it is useful for.

However, as a means of damage limitation, CBD certainly looks like it helps to reduce the impact of strokes and traumatic brain injuries. CBD treatment could be an effective tool for doctors and paramedics to have on hand.

CBD for brain healing following chronic cannabis use

A growing number of people are worried that they have damaged their brains irreversibly by consuming too much super-strength high-THC cannabis for too long. These concerns are legitimate. THC can be neurotoxic in large quantities, and especially so without the balancing effects of CBD.

But it is this moderating influence of CBD which makes it the perfect candidate for brain healing. While the brain’s structure can become damaged, it can just as easily be repaired with a neurogenesis treatment like CBD. Indeed, research has found that the more devastating the effects of chronic cannabis consumption, the more therapeutic that CBD can be.

What is CBD brain disease?

If you have researched CBD and the brain for yourself, you may have come across another type of CBD, which stands for corticobasal degeneration. This describes a condition that can impair memory, while making speech and movement more difficult. CBS is another acronym for this illness. It causes increased damage to brain cells, and eventually brain cell death.

Just to reassure you, this type of CBD has nothing to do with cannabidiol, the cannabinoid! And if you are doing your own research, remember to make this distinction!

Final thoughts

The true benefits of CBD for the brain may take years to fully show. Research is really promising for many areas. But we are a long way off knowing for sure just exactly how valuable CBD can be for various illnesses. However, thanks to the safety of CBD products, you can have the confidence to experiment, and find out whether they work for your health problems. CBD is legal. But CBD hemp oil companies must keep the THC level below 0.3 percent. Already using CBD? Let us know how it helps you! 

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An in-depth look at CBD and mental health

Mental illnesses and general mental health are receiving a lot of attention nowadays. Society is realizing that psychological disorders can have a devastating effect on a person. And many drugs for the likes of anxiety and depression are notorious for their ineffectiveness. This is a great concern given the prevalence of these conditions in the modern world.

But studies on CBD, a chemical compound from hemp and cannabis, is transforming how scientists view mental health. New treatments for mental medical conditions are becoming a possibility, thanks to the remarkable research currently taking place. Indeed, many CBD users have gone one step ahead, and are using legal hemp-based products already to manage their disorders.

This post will really get into the nitty gritty of CBD oil’s potential for mental health issues. We will cover the following, and more:


  • Whether CBD works for various mental illnesses
  • How CBD works for different mental disorders
  • If CBD can replace certain prescription drugs
  • Why CBD is a better option than THC for improving mental health
  • Which CBD products may yield the most mental health benefits

Without further ado, let’s find out if CBD is good for mental health.

What does CBD do for mental health?

CBD stands for cannabidiol, and comes from the hemp plant. Recently, hemp oil products rich in CBD have become popular in the United States. This follows two federal acts that have served to loosen restrictions around and now fully legalize hemp. CBD is a cannabinoid, rare but potent chemicals that come from cannabis. These are very influential for our overall health, because of the all-encompassing presence of cannabinoid receptors throughout the body.

CBD research is now starting to flood in, after being suppressed for many years. The illegality of cannabis under federal law has made it very difficult to acquire funding to study the plant and its compounds. But CBD’s medical potential for mental health is starting to shine. Early studies looking at how the cannabinoid tweaks the brain’s chemical makeup. How CBD enacts positive physical changes are very promising.

Exploring CBD’s benefits for mental health

We’ll cover how CBD appears to work for several mental illnesses and brain fog in this section, and suggest which products may be most helpful. Bear in mind these statements have not been evaluated by the FDA, and that this article is not medical advice, merely educational content.


The World Health Organization has said than 1 in 13 people globally suffer from anxiety. The condition appears subtle on the outside, but can wreak havoc on the inside. Anxiety changes a person’s thought processes. It can cause high levels of fear, panic attacks and lots of unhelpful worst-case scenario thinking. Anxiety’s causes are complicated, but so far appear to be due to neurotransmitter imbalances and serotonin system issues. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the same drugs used to treat depression, are regularly used for anxiety, with varying results. The slow response of these drugs reduces their effectiveness.

CBD is a serotonin 1A receptor agonist, a mechanism that produces an anxiolytic effect. The boost that CBD gives to gamma-Aminobutyric (GABA) neurotransmitters also relaxes the brain, and may alleviate anxiety. CBD can be used to manage many general and social anxiety disorders because of how rapidly it works. Using a vape juice ensures that CBD is into the bloodstream and then the brain in just seconds. This helps anxiety sufferers much more than a drug that may take weeks to work.


Likewise, the slow response of SSRIs for depression shows why treatments for this mental illness are in need of a shakeup. SSRIs eventually have an antidepressant benefit for some users. The gradual neurogenesis effect may be more responsible, however, than the serotonin enhancement. Depression treatment are subpar because the condition has historically not been understood well. Brain wellness was thought to come down to chemical composition, but the brain’s physical state also looks to be key. CBD works with the latter as an antidepressant.

A CBD study on rodents found that the cannabinoid relieves depression by fixing neuronal circuitry in the prefrontal cortex. CBD initiates this effect by stimulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is crucial for neurogenesis. Encouraging brain growth is also how CBD repairs the hippocampus, an effect that improves memory and motivation.

Those planning on a long-term CBD treatment plan might find edibles better, as the dose stays active for longer. But a quicker antidepressant effect can be received by consuming CBD from a vape pen, tincture oil or hemp flower.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

For many years, OCD was considered an anxiety disorder, but it is now viewed as a separate condition. Furthermore, research shows that OCD is more prevalent in society than initially believed, with more than 1 percent of the US adult population affected. People are turning to CBD products as a solution, and are having great results – but why?

The obsessive and compulsive intrusive thoughts that OCD is notorious for come from irregularities in the brain. SSRIs are sometimes used to treat OCD, and they work for some, but not others. However, this does show that changing brain functioning can relieve OCD symptoms. Available studies suggest CBD may treat OCD by acting on the limbic system. Keeping more anandamide, a natural endocannabinoid in the body, which CBD does, may be to thank for the beneficial effects.

That OCD patients are already using CBD to tackle their symptoms is a good sign. It adds weight to the earlier research conducted, and more studies on CBD hemp products will further develop our understanding.

Bipolar disorder

The relationship between cannabis and bipolar disorder is intriguing. Some people report a reduction in symptoms following treatment, while others find that they get worse. This suggests that the type of cannabis being used is key, and the quantity of CBD in particular. Therefore, could CBD be better as a solo treatment for bipolar, than the entire marijuana plant?

Bipolar causes serious mood swings – a combination of mania and depression. This irregular mood may be manageable through the endocannabinoid system (ECS) where CBD functions. Mood is controlled at the CB1 receptor – these are found in the central nervous system. Naturally, anandamide binds to the CB1 receptor. In contrast, CBD inhibits CB1 receptor activity as an antagonist. But CBD also blocks anandamide reuptake. Therefore, while not creating the compound, it makes more available so that the CB1 receptor can operate naturally.

More research on CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is needed regarding bipolar. It’s possible that CBD alones works best, or that a combination is better.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

PTSD affects one in 10 people at some point in life. The disorder causes traumatic flashbacks and nightmares, from extremely negative experiences that have occurred. For example, war veterans are especially vulnerable to PTSD. Some innovative new treatments for PTSD are being studied and considered, including psilocybin from ‘magic’ mushrooms’ and MDMA. However, both of these are still Schedule 1 substances, while CBD is not.

Now researchers know the ECS is implicated in emotional memory processing, influencing how the ECS works has become possible as a PTSD treatment. Early studies on CBD’s potential for PTSD have been conducted on rodents. This is common when researching cannabinoid treatments for mental health disorders. The research has shown that CBD may inhibit the consolidation of negative memories, and also help to extinguish them.

Some PTSD patients feel that the mild psychoactive effects of THC help with combating symptoms. The compound may have a deleterious effect on negative memories. But as an intoxicating substance, THC is not for everyone, just as psilocybin and MDMA may not be in the future.

Psychosis and schizophrenia

These nasty mental illnesses have a close relationship with cannabis for two reasons. THC has the potential to bring them out or worsen them due to its psychoactive properties. However, the contrasting CBD may be beneficial, precisely because it works oppositely to THC. New drugs for psychosis and schizophrenia have become a necessity, as current treatments can cause weight gain, restlessness and sexual health problems.

Reducing CB1 receptor activity as a negative allosteric modulator (NAM) may explain why CBD is therapeutic for these mental illnesses. What’s great about CBD in comparison to typical antipsychotic drugs is the absence of serious side effects. With any drug, it’s not just the benefits that are important, but the balance between medical value and side effects.

CBD for brain fog

In a world where self-optimization is in demand, interest in nootropics is rising. But there’s perhaps no better way than to boost your cognition and clear away brain fog than with natural CBD products. The ECS is implicated in cognition regulation, and CBD is a neuroprotective and antioxidant. Many CBD users find that small doses serve to peak their focus, and make studying easier. Those affected by mental blockages may also enjoy more clarity with CBD.

If brain fog is the result of chronic cannabis use, then CBD is also a good go-to treatment. The restorative role that CBD plays in the brain is great for improving memory. It may even help to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

CBD is more therapeutic than regular cannabis for mental health

The benefits of CBD oil for mental health are becoming clear. And what is also apparent is how CBD tends to be better than THC and, in many cases, a mix of the two. Intoxication is best avoided with the likes of anxiety, with CBD products having a more potent calming effect. 

That’s not to say THC cannot be used to improve mental health, but that is a less predictable substance. Indeed, some find the strong, short-term mood-boosting effects to work wonders. And for PTSD, taking THC may speed up the recovery process. But THC-rich cannabis may perhaps be preferable for those who already have experience with marijuana. New users who aren’t so familiar may struggle to obtain the positives from the psychoactive drug.

Final thoughts

Mental health is a huge problem right now, but the future looks bright. Scientists have lots of drugs to study in the coming years, and CBD is just one of them. What’s even better about CBD is that it is already well-known among Americans, with millions of users. CBD vaping for mental health can be really effective for patients who need rapid improvements to their condition. Capsules and other CBD products that work more steadily are perfect for sustained relief.

The cannabis plant has a profound effect on the brain, and this can be a positive or a negative. We can see this from the differing effects of CBD and THC. This only emphasizes how important it is for CBD to be used sensibly. Providing it is, CBD can yield numerous significant psychological benefits. Have any insight on CBD for mental health that you’d like to share? Please leave a comment below! 

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Why CBD works for teenage depression, acne and more

 Cannabidiol (CBD) products are preferable to cannabis for many reasons. But one of the most crucial is that they are suitable for all ages. Responsible use is, however, essential. Nearly all of the CBD that is available in the American market comes from industrial hemp. This plant is naturally very low in psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a great bonus for making CBD products.

In this article, we are going to cover:

  • How CBD could potentially help teenagers and young adults
  • Study CBD’s antidepressant properties
  • Look at how CBD may relieve acne symptoms
  • Analyze how CBD might alleviate anxiety
  • Suggest which CBD products may be most beneficial


It’s fair to say that many depression patients are crying out for a new treatment – and one that works! The leading class of antidepressant drug has been, for thirty years, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Initially, the science and logic behind SSRIs looked sound. Serotonin is a hormone that the body naturally produces. Serotoa major regulatory effect on our mood and social behavior. 

The prevailing theory was that depression patients were suffering from a lack of serotonin. SSRI drugs could supposedly help to correct that chemical imbalance. In doing so, this would alleviate symptoms of low mood and motivation. It’s important to note that SSRIs merely block serotonin from being degraded. They aren’t a means to creating more of the hormone.

However, research has shown that the effectiveness of SSRIs has declined over time. This is indicative of an initial placebo effect, which made patients think these drugs were more beneficial than they actually are. Nowadays, some still find help from SSRIs. But it is commonly accepted that the therapeutic value of drugs like Prozac are limited. Furthermore, we don’t fully understand the full impact that these drugs even have on the body. It is feasible that the antidepressant properties of SSRIs has little – or nothing – to do with their enhancing effect on serotonin.

Therefore, researchers are now channelling their efforts into new avenues. Those studying cannabinoids, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and the brain are optimistic about the potential of CBD for teenage depression. And, indeed, depression in patients of all ages. CBD’s non-psychoactive nature immediately gives it a good start as a future mainstream drug. Ad glut of studies featured in peer-reviewed scientific journals is fuelling that optimism amongst CBD advocates.

The hippocampus 

Research on CBD is helping to uproot the narrative that depression is the result of a serotonin imbalance. In recent times, some scientists have been looking into the negative effects of neurological inflammation. This causes damage and structural changes to the brain. Brain scans and studies have shown that several areas of the brain are physically changed by depression. We are going to look at two in particular: the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex.

The former holds huge influence over memory and motivation. We can see the harmful effects of hippocampal damage in chronic cannabis users. Some experience memory loss and motivational decline. This is due to the regular and long-term intake of psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

It is perhaps ironic then that one of the emerging treatments for depression comes from the cannabis and hemp plants. But that is thanks to CBD having the complete opposite effect of THC on the hippocampus. Instead of being neurotoxic, CBD sparks hippocampal growth. Another cannabinoid – the non-intoxicating cannabichromene (CBC) has the same effect. A 2015 study identified this in humans for the first time. Both of these chemicals are present in full-spectrum CBD products.

The prefrontal cortex

Moving on to the prefrontal cortex. Molecular Neurobiology published the most relevant study yet in 2018. The teaming up of neuroscientists from Denmark and Brazil made it possible. Their study revolved around researching the antidepressant effects of CBD in rodents. While not as good as a study in humans would have been, rodents are a good first step. They are often used for neuroscience research as their brains have much in common with humans’.

The study focussed on how CBD fixed broken neuronal circuitry in the prefrontal cortex. This likely improved the brain’s ability to handle complex cognitive planning, decision making and personality expression. Researchers noted how CBD sparked an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which stimulates neurogenesis. The decline of BDNF after a few days was taken as a sign that the effects were wearing off.

The future

The main takeaway from this study was the sheer potency of CBD as an antidepressant treatment. This puts it in stark contrast to SSRIs. The experts demonstrated how just one dose of CBD produced antidepressant effects lasting for almost one week. SSRIs must be taken daily by humans with depression. Positive effects rarely show for a fortnight, if no longer. So, what exactly was CBD doing to the prefrontal cortex to make such a significant change in the rodents?

We must wait on this research. But we can already see that Americans with depression are benefitting from CBD treatment. Let’s turn our attention to results from a questionnaire that was answered last year by more than 2400 CBD users. Out of those who are taking CBD for medicinal purposes, depression was listed as the fourth most common illness being remedied. They accounted for nigh on 20% of all medicinal CBD usage. That figure is remarkable given that there is currently no concrete scientific evidence that CBD can help with depression. It proves that this is an area which needs much more attention from researchers. And most of all, it shows the desperate requirement for more funding.

As for which CBD products may work best for depression, the jury is out. A treatment where the CBD remains active for longer would yield the most benefit. In which case, depression sufferers may want to look at CBD capsules or edibles. This is opposed to vape juices and tinctures. However, any CBD product where the CBD is taken into the body and then the brain is likely to help.


Acne is a skin disorder that causes many more problems than just oily skin. This is just the primary physical symptom. It’s the adverse side effect that acne has on confidence which can be most devastating. Those affected obsess over spots and zits, and sometimes even go into a prolonged period of depression. The aesthetic harm that acne causes can be especially worrisome for younger people. Hence why it is so encouraging that CBD skin care products may help with teenage acne.

Unsurprisingly, given the proliferation of hormonal acne, the alternative health market has been flooded with treatments for the skin disorder. While some of these may be effective, others have been shown to be downright dangerous. Take Roaccutane, for instance. Many countries have pulled the acne remedy, as it can cause dry skin, nosebleeds and rashes. It’s likely that Roaccutane doesn’t work because it is aggressive on the skin.

How CBD works

CBD nurtures the skin to produce its anti-acne effects. The key to the acne puzzle is regulating levels of sebum. The sebaceous glands create this natural oil. Acne is the result of overactivity in these glands. Excess sebum is responsible for oily skin and clogged – and potentially infected – pores. CBD soothes the sebaceous glands. One study coined the cannabinoid a “sebostatic”. This regulating effect returns sebum production levels to a normal and sustainable rate. Therefore, a CBD topical doesn’t just manage the symptoms of acne. It is also free of the side effects that other acne treatments bring.

Ideally, a large scientific investigation on the benefits of CBD for acne will be carried out in the near future. At present, our knowledge is based around a handful of studies – not all directly related to acne – and some anecdotal evidence. Clearly, an acne cream is the best possible treatment for the condition. CBD creams deliver anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antimicrobial effects directly to the skin. The all-round properties of CBD help to calm acne, as well as redness, scars and itching.


Anxiety affects many teenagers and young adults. Maybe this is due to mental health being less of a taboo in today’s world and the younger generation. This could make people more willing to report it. The online world and social media may also exacerbate anxiety. Switching off has become impossible for many.

As with depression, mental health scientists have been slow to get to the root causes of anxiety. Subsequently, we have substandard treatments for the disorder. Anxiety patients get SSRI prescription for their condition. But the results are mediocre. However, CBD research suggests things may soon get better for anxiety patients.

The key to resolving anxiety seems to be in calming and relaxing the brain and the mind. Easier said than done, but CBD operates in some novel ways. CBD influences the serotonin 1A receptor in the serotonin system and the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA). These are independent from each other, but both can be worked with to deliver anxiolytic effects.

Studies have also shown how CBD is effective for anxiety in practical – and particularly social – situations. This is important. It’s all very well knowing how CBD reduces anxiety in theory, but it needs to work in practice. An investigation in 2011 compared the responses that anxiety sufferers had to CBD and a placebo in a simulated speaking test. The results found that the group given the former enjoyed less anxiety before and during their speech.

Chronic cannabis users

For those who have taken too much cannabis in their younger years, there is good news. CBD can reduce the potential harm that this has done to the brain. This is arguably more of a problem than ever before, considering that cannabis is now stronger than ever. THC’s impact, as we described earlier, is neurotoxic for the hippocampus.

But the neurogenesis properties of CBD and a full hemp extract can reverse memory and motivation loss. A study published in 2018 showed how CBD had the biggest therapeutic effect in those with the most severe hippocampal issues. 

Final thoughts

CBD has huge potential for younger people. It may even deal with some of the most serious health problems that the youth are dealing with today. CBD needs comprehensive clinical trials for medical approval. CBD research must now progress.The FDA approval process takes time, as a new drug must go through several phases of testing. But a CBD drug called Epidiolex for epilepsy has successfully passed. This indicates that CBD could also win approval for other illnesses. 

The early promise of CBD is undeniable. And the great effects that people are already enjoying with CBD suggests a bright future. The availability of funding dollars is key. Then we can make these crucial discoveries, sooner rather than later. Do you have a story about CBD use for younger people? Drop us a line in the comments – we want to hear from you!